In vitro fertilization. Frequently asked questions
The desire to be a mother is truncated in many cases before the impossibility of achieving pregnancy dreamed. More and more women are having problems when looking for a child. The delay of age in which the mother considers her first pregnancy also has to do with all this, but there are many other fa
The desire to be a mother is truncated in many cases before the impossibility of achieving pregnancy dreamed. More and more women are having problems when looking for a child. The delay of age in which the mother considers her first pregnancy also has to do with all this, but there are many other factors that make the future parents have to go to an assisted reproduction center. But what exactly is in vitro fertilization? We answer your questions.
What is in vitro fertilization
It is also known as IVF (In Vitro Fertilization), and is one of the most demanded assisted reproduction techniques in the face of the impossibility of achieving a pregnancy. It consists of extracting ovules from the woman's body and sperm from the man and achieving fertilization outside the body. It is made in a laboratory and is so called because at the beginning glass containers were used for it. The first child 'in vitro' was born in 1978.
In which cases in vitro fertilization is recommended
There are different methods to help achieve pregnancy. In fact, in vitro fertilization is usually the last option. It is considered that there is sterility if, during a year, the couple has not achieved pregnancy. The first will determine what is the cause. They can be multiple: from a poor quality of man's semen to an ovarian alteration of the woman.
What is ovarian stimulation
Before extracting ovules and sperm, the woman will have to undergo ovarian stimulation. It is a treatment of about two weeks and involves the administration of hormones that favor a greater production of oocytes. These hormones are usually injected cutaneously. When the oocytes are mature, they will be ready for extraction. The greater the number of oocytes, the more likely that implantation will be successful.
How oocytes are extracted in in vitro fertilization
One of the most frequent questions of women who think about undergoing IVF is about the moment of extraction. Three days before the extraction a hormone is administered to the woman (human chorionic gonadotropin) to stimulate ovulation. The oocytes are extracted by an ultrasound-guided needle. No anesthesia or hospitalization is needed. The extraction lasts less than half an hour.
How in vitro fertilization takes place
Once in the laboratory, the oocytes are isolated from other cells that surround them and incubate at a temperature of 37 ° C for 2 or 3 hours. Afterwards, oocytes and spermatozoa (which have been previously extracted and prepared) are joined together. It can be done in two ways: introduce oocytes and sperm into a petri dish (plastic) and wait for fertilization to occur alone or inject externally the sperm in the ovum. After 18 hours you will know how many oocytes have been fertilized.
The implantation of the embryo in in vitro fertilization
The embryos will take between two and five days to be ready for implantation. This is done through a cannula (a small plastic tube). No anesthesia is necessary but an injection of progesterone is usually administered and a rest period in the clinic is recommended. It is not painful, but it is annoying. It can cause abdominal cramps.
What percentage of success will I have with in vitro fertilization?
The average is around 33%, although the success of in vitro fertilization depends to a large extent on the age of the mother. For example, after 40 years, the success of in vitro fertilization drops to 10%. How the first time only the embryos of higher quality are implanted, the rest can be frozen and the whole process can be done again later in the case of not achieving fertilization on the first attempt.
What are the possibilities of multiple pregnancy in in vitro fertilization?
It also depends on the age of the mother and the number of embryos implanted, but it is estimated that around 30% of cases a twin pregnancy occurs and in 3% and 4% of IVF may occur a triplet pregnancy .