Reading is the process by which there is a decoding, meaning and understanding of certain information reflected in a medium and transmitted through some code, usually the language. Sometimes, this reading and writing process does not develop as it should, which could be due to different causes, such
Reading is the process by which there is a decoding, meaning and understanding of certain information reflected in a medium and transmitted through some code, usually the language.
Sometimes, this reading and writing process does not develop as it should, which could be due to different causes, such as environmental factors, inadequate teaching methodology and speech or language problems, among others. What are the most common problems that occur when the child is learning to read?
How is the reading acquired?
The acquisition of reading requires learning that goes through a series of stages:
1. Logographic: the child in this period the child is able to recognize known writings globally, ie, logos. Example: Can recognize the logo of certain brands.
2. Alphabetic: during this stage the child begins to understand the alphabetic principle and to associate the grapheme with the corresponding phoneme. This stage is known as the phonological coding stage, in which the child reads by phonemes or syllables.
3. Orthographic: In this phase, the child is able to recognize the orthographic patterns needed to get a fluent reading. The child begins to recognize groups of letters and words with just a glance.
Some authors add a fourth stage, which would be the following:
4. Fluid-expressive: at this moment, the child is able to read a text, attending to the punctuation, expression and context.
Problems during the learning of reading
Reading delay: can be defined as a developmental gap in the acquisition of reading and writing that usually appears in children between 6 and 8 years without presenting any kind of pathology. It manifests as a delay in the acquisition of skills and aptitudes necessary to read and write.
Dyslexia: involves difficulties when learning to read by conventional methods of instruction, even though the child has a normal level of intelligence and adequate socio-cultural conditions.
Disortography: is the set of writing errors that affect the word and not its layout or graph.
Dysgraphy: is a disorder of functional type that affects writing in terms of layout or graph.
How to detect a delay in reading in children?
In order to diagnose these aspects, we must attend to a series of factors: absence of vision and hearing problems, absence of physical problems that may affect reading, absence of emotional or neurological disorders and normal IQ
To consider that there is an affectation in this aspect we must find: deterioration in reading and performance in this aspect significantly lower than expected in relation to their personal and school characteristics.