Literacy exercises for children with disortography
The most known writing disorder today is dyslexia. However, there are other alterations that may appear in the area of reading and writing. Among them, we find disortography. Dis Disortography is the difficulty in mastering the principles of spelling. There are difficulties when associating the wr
The most known writing disorder today is dyslexia. However, there are other alterations that may appear in the area of reading and writing. Among them, we find disortography. Dis Disortography is the difficulty in mastering the principles of spelling.
There are difficulties when associating the written code, the rules of spelling and the writing of the words , and it is characterized by the repetition of the same errors, without being able to correct them or assimilate the spelling rules.What is the cause of disortography in children?
There are different factors that can be the cause of this disorder and can be classified into different groups:
- Intellectual causes:
cause a difficulty in the acquisition of basic spelling. It is not the most relevant cause, but it can be associated with other types of difficulties that are important. - Linguistic causes:
they refer to a difficulty in the acquisition of language, in some of its areas (vocabulary, articulation ...) - Causes of pedagogical type:
these are related to the educational method used when teaching the orthographic rules to children. - Perceptual causes:
refer to visual and auditory processing, which is decisive for the development of spelling. Within this group, aspects such as visual and auditory memory and space-time orientation are included. - Emotional causes:
are related to a low level of motivation. Symptoms of infantile dystortography
In the writing of children with this disorder, different errors may appear. Some of them are the following:
- Linguistic-perceptual errors
: some of them are, substitutions of phonemes by others similar by the point or mode of articulation, omissions, additions or investments of phonemes, syllables or words.- Visuospatial errors
: among them we find substitutions of similar letters, mirror writing, confusion of phonemes that have double spelling, omission of the / h / ...- Visuauditive errors:
consist of the difficulty of associating the grapheme and the phoneme . These children change letters by others in a random way. - Content errors:
these children can perform fragmentations and inappropriate links at the time of writing. - Errors related to spelling rules:
consist in not complying with fundamental orthographic rules. Example: do not put m before p and b. Exercises to help children with disortography
Before starting to work with children who present disortography, it is very important
to make a record of the spelling mistakes they make in order to individualize the treatment. To diagnose it, the most used techniques are the dictation, the copy of a text, a copy of a text with another type of letter (for example, italics) and the free writing. In addition, there are specific evaluation tests for this purpose. It is important to detect the origin of the existing difficulties in order to correctly guide the child and his family.
Some examples of activities that can be done with these children are: Traba - Work the rhythm of reading and writing.
This consists in marking with pats or blows on the table the rhythm that the child should follow while reading.
- Detect the intrusive letter . We provide the child with a list of words that share a phoneme, except one. Example: pan-mal-par-paz. The child must be able to recognize that the word that is left over is wrong because it does not contain the / m / phoneme.
- Make rhymes in written form.Example: write words that rhyme with a lion.
- The technique of self-dictation . The child before writing a sentence must analyze it fragment by fragment and then reproduce it without making mistakes.
- Cacographic list:consists of preparing an inventory with the mistakes made by the student. He must copy in a notebook all the spelling mistakes he makes in his writings. With this list will be activities of memorization, dictation, construction of phrases using these words, classifications, lexical families ...
- Perception figure-background. This activity consists of working on visual discrimination through exercises in which the figure and the background should be perceived in an image.
- When there are errors in the spelling rules, activities such as memorization
can be performed, complete words missing the letter that is being worked on, form words that contain the spelling rule. - Generalization:Exercises should be carried out to make it easier for the child, once he has learned the word, to integrate it into his active vocabulary and make use of it.
If you suspect that your child may have this condition, contact your tutor at school, and consult your speech therapist. They will know what to do!